High northern latitudes are at the leading edge of global climate change with the effects of warming already evident in degrading permafrost. Increased thawing of permafrost, a significant global carbon pool, makes previously sequestered carbon available for microbial degradation. Increased ambient temperature results in a transition from pristine (frozen) permafrost, through an intermediate (thawing) state, to fully degraded and flooded end state (thawed). Transition to a thawed state has been associated with dramatic increases in biogenic production of methane and a change in overall greenhouse gas balance. Our research aims to investigate microbial communities associated with this shift with a view to predicting post-permafrost community composition and function, and global warming feedbacks. Microbial communities along such a thaw gradient in Stordalen Mire, northern Sweden were characterised using meta-omic approaches. Our results reveal distinct differences in the microbial communities at each site along the thaw gradient, which can be directly associated with thaw state and increasing methane emission.